Notes and Sources 1
N.B: The notes/sources below can be accessed individually by clicking on the small, superscripted numbers found with the relevant text throughout this web-site. The 'return' link at the end of each individual note/source will take you back whence you came. Some of the superscripted numbers are followed by a small letter 'n'; this denotes a 'note' as opposed to a mere 'source'. (Internet Explorer users beware: you may not always be 'taken to' or 'returned to' precisely the designated location on the page: for accurate results every time - use Netscape.)

Giving sources relating to Elizabeth Gaskell's 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë' presents a problem: there are so many different editions of this book, it is pointless giving page numbers. In this case I have tried to indicate where the information is located by giving the approximate distance through the relevant chapter (i.e. a quarter way through CH.5). In some cases I have stated the information's proximity to a dated letter - as all letters in the book are presented in date order, and are easy to locate.

BPM = Brontë Parsonage Museum (library).


1) Anne to Ellen Nussey, letter of 26 January 1848: see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.158. (return)

2) Anne Brontë, 'Agnes Grey', CH.17 (approx. 3/4 through chapter). (return)

3) Chitham, 'The Poems of Anne Brontë', p.14. (ultimately from Clement Shorter's 'Charlotte Brontë and Her Circle'). (return)

4) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.237. (return)

5) This reference was made by Clement Shorter ('The Brontës and Their Circle') - see Chitham, 'The Poems of Anne Brontë', p.22. (return)

6) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.593. (return)

7) Langland, 'Anne Brontë - The Other One', p.4. (return)

8) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', CH.7 (a little over 1/4 way through chapter). (return)

9) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.366; also see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.88. (return)

10) Barbara Whitehead, 'Charlotte Brontë and her "Dearest Nell"', p.111. (return)

11) Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.77: also see Chitham, 'The Poems of Anne Brontë', p.22. (return)

12) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.517. Also Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', CH.15 (several paragraphs from end). (return)

13) Barbara Whitehead, 'Charlotte Brontë and her "Dearest Nell"', p.54. (return)

13b) C. Holmes Cautley, 'Old Haworth Folk Who Knew the Brontës', in Cornhill Magazine, 29 July 1910: see Harold Orel, 'The Brontës: Interviews and Recollections', p.206-208: also Barker, 'The Brontës', p.183 & p.872 - note 50. (return)

14) Harold Orel (edited by), 'The Brontës: Interviews and Recollections', University of Iowa Press, 1997; p.195. (Information provided by Maria Torres). (return)

15) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.252 & p.886 - note 93. (return)

16) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.532: also Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.272. (return)

17) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.563: also Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.275. (return)

18) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.559: also see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.163: also Chitham, 'The Poems of Anne Brontë', p.22. (return)

19) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', Ch.16 (approx. 3 pages of text after the letter dated May 3rd. 1848. - p.280 depending on edition); also Barker 'The Brontës', p.560. This was Anne's first long journey with Charlotte since they left Roe Head together in 1837, and certainly the farthest she had travelled from Haworth. There may have been some question as to how she would cope making such a journey with her 'mildly disapproving sister', but she coped with the physical and mental stresses better than Charlotte, and provided her with good support, which, from the sound of this statement, Charlotte was grateful for. (return)

20) Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.178: also Barker, 'The Brontës', p.581. (return)

21) Clement Shorter, 'The Brontës and Their Circle', p.164. (return)

22) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.195. The Brontë Parsonage Museum also have another lock that was removed shortly after Anne's death: it has rarely been exposed to any source of light and is beautifully preserved. I have had the privilege of viewing this, and found it to be considerably darker than I expected. I would describe it as a rich medium/dark brown. (return)

23) Gerin, 'Branwell Brontë - A Biography', p.241. (return)

24) 'Cornhill', December 1900. - See Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.163. Also Barker, 'The Brontës', p.559. (return)

25) 'John Elliot Cairnes', Visit to Haworth Parsonage', T.P.Foley, Brontë Society Transactions 18.94.292.  BPM. (return)

26) C. Holmes Cautley, 'Old Haworth Folk Who Knew the Brontës', in Cornhill Magazine, 29 July 1910: see Harold Orel, 'The Brontës: Interviews and Recollections', p.206-208: also Barker, 'The Brontës', p.183 & p.872 - note 50. (return)

27) 'Details of Anne Brontë's Physical Appearance' - computer printout - Mary Robinson: 6.  BPM. (return)

28) Charlotte's height has been estimated at 4' 9" to 4' 10" by reference to her clothing sizes: dresses, shoes etc. Emily's height is known by the fact that her coffin measured 5' 7" (Reference: BPM). By assessing all indicators and references to Anne's stature; and discussing these with another Brontë scholar, I estimated her height to be around 5' 1" to 5' 2". On later discussing this subject with the Brontë Parsonage Library staff, I found they had also made their own assessment - and produced the exact same estimation. Two typical references indicating Anne was rather small are: (1) Charlotte's Publisher, George Smith, described the moment he first set eyes on Charlotte and Anne:  'two rather quaintly-dressed little ladies . . came into my room': Gardiner, 'The Brontës At Haworth', p.122; and (2) Mrs. Gaskell, who had never met Anne, but would probably have obtained a description from Charlotte, and certainly did from Patrick during her process of writing Charlotte's biography, described in her own words the occasion mentioned above: on George Smith's reaction on first meeting Charlotte and Anne, she goes on: '. . . as if he could not believe the two ladies dressed in black, of slight figures and diminutive stature, . . could be . . Currer and Acton Bell': Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', Ch.16 (approx. 2.5 pages of text after the letter dated 'May 3rd. 1848' - it is pointless giving page numbers for this book, as their relation to the text varies widely between the different editions, however, all quoted letters in the book are presented in date order!). (return)

29) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.172 & p.869 - note 8. (return)

30) It was noted that several 'Yorkshiremen' remembered Patrick during his curacy at Dewsbury - shortly before he met and married Maria, and that he 'spoke with a strong Irish accent.' However, Mrs. Gaskell recorded that when she first met him, in September 1853, 'he spoke with no trace of an Irish accent': Gardiner, 'The Brontës of Haworth', p.20. This gradual and total loss of the accent could well have been echoed in his children. (return)

31) After declaring that Emily played the piano brilliantly, Ellen's notes continue: 'Anne played also but she preferred soft harmonies - she sang a little, her voice was weak, but very sweet in tone.' [for uncorrected quote - see no: 20] Ellen Nussey, reminiscences; 1871. BPM. Also see Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.41. (return)

32) The original photograph was taken around 1930 - shortly after the building had become the 'Brontë Parsonage Museum'. Here, it has been digitally re-mastered (to pinch a phrase from the CD companies) to give the Parsonage and garden an appearance closer to that which it had in the Brontës' time. In addition to removing the gable wing of the house, I have made many other alterations such that it conforms with contemporary photographs, maps and descriptions. (N.B: By clicking on this {right-hand side} picture, you can view the original from which it was produced, plus a contemporary map of the Parsonage and its grounds.) (return)

33) Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.275. (return)

34) The North American Review of October 1848: see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.575. Also see Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.72. (return)

35) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.740 & p.962 - note 72. Also see - the 'Brontë Parsonage Museum', Guide Book, 1998 (new version), p.19. Also see Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.41. (return)


(Continued on Notes and Sources - page 2)


BPM = Brontë Parsonage Museum (library).


Copyright © 1999 Michael Armitage

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